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Este Blogue é um estudo da Associação Projecto Raia Alentejana e tem como objectivo a discussão da violência em geral e da guerra na Pré-História em particular. A Arqueologia da Península Ibérica tem aqui especial relevo. Esperamos cruzar dados de diferentes campos do conhecimento com destaque para a Antropologia Social. As críticas construtivas são bem vindas neste espaço, que se espera, de conhecimento.

Guerra Primitiva\Pré-Histórica
Violência interpessoal colectiva entre duas ou mais comunidades políticas distintas, com o uso de armas tendo como objectivo causar fatalidades, por um motivo colectivo sem hipótese de compensação.


Violence in Iberia

Evidences of interpersonal violence or primitive war in the archaeological register of the Iberian Peninsula


Site \ Country \ Period

Description \ My interpretation

Bibliography.



Sima de los Huesos \ Spain \ Medium Paleolithic

Several skulls with several healed fractures \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Cervera et al. 1998, p. 143 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 151.



Moita do Sebastião \ Portugal \ Mesolithic

Foot bone with a projectile mark \ Interpersonal violence

Lubell et al. 1989 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 153.



Cabeço da Arruda I \ Portugal \ Neolithic

Skull with mark of impact \ Interpersonal violence

Lubell et al. 1989 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 153.



Serra da Roupa \ Portugal \ Neolithic

Skull with two fractures by depression \ Interpersonal violence

Silva, 2000.



Bóbila Madurell \ Spain \ Neolithic

Grave with two males with the skulls crushed, an arrow in a lumbar vertebra \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Osgood et al., 2000, p. 46. Campillo, Mercadal i Blanch, 1993 apud Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.



Camí de Can Grau \ Spain \ Neolithic

An arrow in the arch of a vertebra \ Interpersonal violence

Martí, Pou i Carlos, 1993 apud Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.



Dólmen de Ansião \ Portugal \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Fragment of the frontal with a mark maybe by an arrow and five traumas in skulls by fracture. Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Silva, 2000.



Poço Velho, Portugal \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Traumatic cut wound level with the exocrânio and diploe, three skulls with depressions \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Antunes-Ferreira, 2005, p. 88.



Eira da Pedrinha \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic

Depression in the left medium region of the frontal bone \ Interpessoal violence

Mendes Correa and Teixeira, 1949 apud Silva, 2000.





Monte Canelas \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic

Two cranial fractures by depression and a cranial oval wound in the right parietal \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war.

Silva, 2000.





São Pedro do Estoril \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic

Male cranial whit depression in the frontal bone \ Violence interpessoal

Silva, 2000.





Leceia \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic

Osteological remains of adult males in a structured garbage pit \ Primitive war

Cardoso, 1991, p. 80 and 81.





Dólmen de Clara \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Four cranial injuries \ Interpessoal Violence or primitive war

Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44



Cartuja de las Fuentes \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Osteological remains with an arrow tip mark \ Interpersonal violence

Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.





Cueva de las Cáscaras \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Projectile in fémur \ Interpersonal violence

Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.





Venta del Griso \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Osteological remains with several projectile marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.





Cueva del Barranco de la Higuera \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic

Skull wound caused by an angular and hard object \ Interpersonal violence

Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47





Hipogeu de Longar \ Spain\ Chalcolithic

Collective burial of 112 individuals of diverse ages and sexes, no objects of personal adornment, only flint artifacts, splinters and tips of arrows. Four cases of flint projectiles in bonnes, maybe the other flint artifacts came from the soft tissue of the individuals. \ Primitive war

Armendáriz, Irigaray and Irigaray, 1995 apud Kunst, 2000, p. 131 and 132.



San Juan Ante Portem Latinam \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Human remains of 289 individuals, nine arrows wounds and four Monteggia fractures, possible simultaneous inumation, wounds from behind in males \ Primitive war

Vegas et al. 1999, apud Kunst, 2000, p. 132-133.



Valencina de la Concepción \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Skeletons of two individuals found in a ditch without funeral ritual or another special handling, lacking some anatomic parts \ Primitive war

Etxeberria i Vegas, 1988a apud Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.



La Atalayuela \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Deposit of individuals carried out in a moment, little quantity of artifacts associated to these individuals, arrow tip in one skull \ Primitive war

Barandiarán, 1978, p. 417 apud Kunst, 2000, p. 131.



Grajal de Campos \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Skull with two arrow tips(Palmela type) \ Interpersonal violence

Etxeberria i Vegas 1988a; Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.



Cueva de las cabras \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Human remains with several marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war.

Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.



El Puig \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Skull whith a curved fracture \ Interpersonal violence

Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.



Carrelasvegas \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

An individual thrown in a ditch, without a foot, without funeral goods \ Interpersonal violence

Osgood et al. 2000, p. 48.



Los Llometes \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Human remains whith several wound marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 173.



Cerro de la Encina, Spain, Chalcolithic

An individual with fractures in the nasal bones, another with fractures in the ribs and a third one with an elevated number of other wounds \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war

Osgood et al. 2000, p. 48.



Cerro de la Cabeza \ Spain \ Chalcolithic

Grave with eleven individuals with traumatic pathologies grave with six individuals with diverse projectiles in the bones \ Primitive war

Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44-45.



Aitzibita \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age

Skull wound provoked by sword or axe \ Interpersonal violence

Beguiristain Gurpide, 1997, p. 323-325.



Dólmen de Collet Su \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age

Metal arrow in human remains \ Interpersonal violence

Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.



Cova de L´Heure de L' Arboli \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age

Bronze arrow in the jaw \ Interpersonal violence

Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 173.



Cerro de Cuchillo \ Spain \ Bronze Age

Young males monopolize the burials under the dwellings \ Primitive war

Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.



Cerro de la Encantada \ Spain \ Bronze Age

Pits with graves, some individuals whitout skull \ Primitive war

Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.



Balma de Sargantana \Spain \ Bronze Age

Big percentage of traumatic pathologies \ Primitive war.

Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44.



Caramoro \ Spain \ Bronze Age

Skull trauma provoked by a sword \ Interpersonal violence

Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.



Factoria Euskalduna \ Spain \ Bronze Age.

Pits with graves, some individuals whitout skull \ Primitive war

Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.



Roc d' Orenetes \ Spain \ Bronze Age

Individual with fracture in bisel \ Interpersonal violence

Mercadal and Agusti 2006, p. 44.



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