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Este Blogue é um estudo da Associação Projecto Raia Alentejana e tem como objectivo a discussão da violência em geral e da guerra na Pré-História em particular. A Arqueologia da Península Ibérica tem aqui especial relevo. Esperamos cruzar dados de diferentes campos do conhecimento com destaque para a Antropologia Social. As críticas construtivas são bem vindas neste espaço, que se espera, de conhecimento.

Guerra Primitiva\Pré-Histórica
Violência interpessoal colectiva entre duas ou mais comunidades políticas distintas, com o uso de armas tendo como objectivo causar fatalidades, por um motivo colectivo sem hipótese de compensação.


Thursday, 19 February 2009

Evidences of interpersonal violence or primitive war in the archaeological register of the Iberian Peninsula

Luis Lobato de Faria

Site \ Country \ Period
Description \ My interpretation
Bibliography.

Sima de los Huesos \ Spain \ Medium Paleolithic
Several skulls with several healed fractures \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Cervera et al. 1998, p. 143 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 151.

Moita do Sebastião \ Portugal \ Mesolithic
Foot bone with a projectile mark \ Interpersonal violence
Lubell et al. 1989 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 153.

Cabeço da Arruda I \ Portugal \ Neolithic
Skull with mark of impact \ Interpersonal violence
Lubell et al. 1989 apud Thorpe, 2003, p. 153.

Serra da Roupa \ Portugal \ Neolithic
Skull with two fractures by depression \ Interpersonal violence
Silva, 2000.

Bóbila Madurell \ Spain \ Neolithic
Grave with two males with the skulls crushed, an arrow in a lumbar vertebra \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Osgood et al., 2000, p. 46. Campillo, Mercadal i Blanch, 1993 apud Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.

Camí de Can Grau \ Spain \ Neolithic
An arrow in the arch of a vertebra \ Interpersonal violence
Martí, Pou i Carlos, 1993 apud Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.

Dólmen de Ansião \ Portugal \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Fragment of the frontal with a mark maybe by an arrow and five traumas in skulls by fracture. Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Silva, 2000.

Poço Velho, Portugal \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Traumatic cut wound level with the exocrânio and diploe, three skulls with depressions \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Antunes-Ferreira, 2005, p. 88.

Eira da Pedrinha \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic
Depression in the left medium region of the frontal bone \ Interpessoal violence
Mendes Correa and Teixeira, 1949 apud Silva, 2000.


Monte Canelas \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic
Two cranial fractures by depression and a cranial oval wound in the right parietal \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war.
Silva, 2000.


São Pedro do Estoril \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic
Male cranial whit depression in the frontal bone \ Violence interpessoal
Silva, 2000.


Leceia \ Portugal \ Chalcolithic
Osteological remains of adult males in a structured garbage pit \ Primitive war
Cardoso, 1991, p. 80 and 81.


Dólmen de Clara \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Four cranial injuries \ Interpessoal Violence or primitive war
Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44

Cartuja de las Fuentes \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Osteological remains with an arrow tip mark \ Interpersonal violence
Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.


Cueva de las Cáscaras \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Projectile in fémur \ Interpersonal violence
Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.


Venta del Griso \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Osteological remains with several projectile marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.


Cueva del Barranco de la Higuera \ Spain \ Final Neolithic - Chalcolithic
Skull wound caused by an angular and hard object \ Interpersonal violence
Etxeberria i Vegas 1988ª, Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47


Hipogeu de Longar \ Spain\ Chalcolithic
Collective burial of 112 individuals of diverse ages and sexes, no objects of personal adornment, only flint artifacts, splinters and tips of arrows. Four cases of flint projectiles in bonnes, maybe the other flint artifacts came from the soft tissue of the individuals. \ Primitive war
Armendáriz, Irigaray and Irigaray, 1995 apud Kunst, 2000, p. 131 and 132.

San Juan Ante Portem Latinam \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Human remains of 289 individuals, nine arrows wounds and four Monteggia fractures, possible simultaneous inumation, wounds from behind in males \ Primitive war
Vegas et al. 1999, apud Kunst, 2000, p. 132-133.

Valencina de la Concepción \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Skeletons of two individuals found in a ditch without funeral ritual or another special handling, lacking some anatomic parts \ Primitive war
Etxeberria i Vegas, 1988a apud Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.

La Atalayuela \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Deposit of individuals carried out in a moment, little quantity of artifacts associated to these individuals, arrow tip in one skull \ Primitive war
Barandiarán, 1978, p. 417 apud Kunst, 2000, p. 131.

Grajal de Campos \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Skull with two arrow tips(Palmela type) \ Interpersonal violence
Etxeberria i Vegas 1988a; Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.

Cueva de las cabras \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Human remains with several marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war.
Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 172.

El Puig \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Skull whith a curved fracture \ Interpersonal violence
Osgood et al. 2000, p. 47.

Carrelasvegas \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
An individual thrown in a ditch, without a foot, without funeral goods \ Interpersonal violence
Osgood et al. 2000, p. 48.

Los Llometes \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Human remains whith several wound marks \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 173.

Cerro de la Encina, Spain, Chalcolithic
An individual with fractures in the nasal bones, another with fractures in the ribs and a third one with an elevated number of other wounds \ Interpersonal violence or primitive war
Osgood et al. 2000, p. 48.

Cerro de la Cabeza \ Spain \ Chalcolithic
Grave with eleven individuals with traumatic pathologies grave with six individuals with diverse projectiles in the bones \ Primitive war
Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44-45.

Aitzibita \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age
Skull wound provoked by sword or axe \ Interpersonal violence
Beguiristain Gurpide, 1997, p. 323-325.

Dólmen de Collet Su \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age
Metal arrow in human remains \ Interpersonal violence
Campillo 1995 apud Osgood et al., 2000, p. 47.

Cova de L´Heure de L' Arboli \ Spain \ Chalcolithic - Bronze Age
Bronze arrow in the jaw \ Interpersonal violence
Guilaine and Zammit, 2002, p. 173.

Cerro de Cuchillo \ Spain \ Bronze Age
Young males monopolize the burials under the dwellings \ Primitive war
Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.

Cerro de la Encantada \ Spain \ Bronze Age
Pits with graves, some individuals whitout skull \ Primitive war
Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.

Balma de Sargantana \Spain \ Bronze Age
Big percentage of traumatic pathologies \ Primitive war.
Mercadal and Agusti, 2006, p. 44.

Caramoro \ Spain \ Bronze Age
Skull trauma provoked by a sword \ Interpersonal violence
Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.

Factoria Euskalduna \ Spain \ Bronze Age.
Pits with graves, some individuals whitout skull \ Primitive war
Martínez Peñarroya, 2000, p. 157.

Roc d' Orenetes \ Spain \ Bronze Age
Individual with fracture in bisel \ Interpersonal violence
Mercadal and Agusti 2006, p. 44.

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