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Este Blogue é um estudo da Associação Projecto Raia Alentejana e tem como objectivo a discussão da violência em geral e da guerra na Pré-História em particular. A Arqueologia da Península Ibérica tem aqui especial relevo. Esperamos cruzar dados de diferentes campos do conhecimento com destaque para a Antropologia Social. As críticas construtivas são bem vindas neste espaço, que se espera, de conhecimento.

Guerra Primitiva\Pré-Histórica
Violência interpessoal colectiva entre duas ou mais comunidades políticas distintas, com o uso de armas tendo como objectivo causar fatalidades, por um motivo colectivo sem hipótese de compensação.


Monday, 23 February 2009

Pontas de seta (continuação) - Arrowheads (continuation)

L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia

James WHITE, ed., Handbook of Indians of Canada, Published as an Appendix to the Tenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1913, 632p., pp. 38-39.

The separate tips or points of arrow-shafts. Among the Indian tribes many, were made of flint and other varieties of stone, as well as bone, horn, antler, shell, wood, and copper. Copper was much used by such tribes as were able to obtain a supply from the L. Superior region and to some extent by those of British Columbia and Alaska . Iron has largely taken the place of these materials since the coming of the whites. In stone imple­ments of this class the only line of distinction between arrowheads and spearheads is that of size. Very few flint arrowheads are as much as 2 inches long, and these are quite slender; thick or strong ones are much shorter. Solid flesh, being almost as resistant as soft rubber, could not be penetrated by a large projectile unless it were propelled by greater power than can be obtained from a bow without artificial aid which is not at the command of [Indians]. The shape of the stone arrowhead among the Indian tribes is usually triangular or pointed­-oval, though some have very slender blades with expanding base. Many of them are notched. These were set in a slot in the end of the shaft and tied with sinew, rawhide, or cord, which passed through the notches. Those without notches were secured by the cord passing over and under the angle at the base in a figure 8 fashion. It is said that war arrows often had the head loosely attached, so that it would remain in the wound when the shaft was withdrawn, while the hunting point was firmly secured in order that the arrow might be recovered entire. Glue, gum, and cement were used in some sections for fixing the point or for rendering the fastening more secure. A specimen which has the end rounded or squared instead of flattened is known as a "bunt." As a rule both faces are worked off equally so as to bring the edge opposite the middle plane of the blade, though it is sometimes a little on one side. For the greater part these seem to be redressed ordinary spearheads, knives, or arrowheads whose points have been broken off, though some appear to have been originally made in this form. A few are smooth or polished at the ends, as if used for knives or scrapers; but most of them have no marks of use except occasionally such as would result from being shot or struck against a hard sub­stance. It is probable that their purpose was to stun birds or small game, in order to secure the pelt or plumage free from cuts or blood stain. They are relatively few in number, though widely distributed in area. The Eski­mo employ arrowheads of stone of usual forms.

Luis Lobato de Faria

Este excerto descreve-nos que o tamanho de uma ponta de seta pode prejudicar a sua eficácia e traz-nos um dado importante acerca das pontas usada na guerra, a intenção de deixar a ponta na ferida.
This excerpt describes us that the size of a arrowhead can reduce his efficacy and brings us an important fact about the arrowheads used in primitive war, the intention to leave the arrowhead in the wound.
Os autores Palomo i Pérez e Gibaja Bao (2003, p. 179), no estudo das pontas de seta encontradas em monumentos do Neolítico \ Calcolítico da Catalunha, lançam a hipótese de estas terem chegado ali dentro dos corpos do inumados, para o hipogeo de la Costa de can Martorell:
The authors Palomo i Pérez and Gibaja Bao (2003, p. 179), in the study of the arrowheads found in monuments of the Neolithic \ Calcolítico of Catalunha, throw the hypothesis of their arrival, on the monument, inside the bodies, for the hipogeo de la Costa de can Martorell:
"…pel context funerari on van aparèixer les puntes, una inhumació múltiple d’uns 200 individus,…i pel gran índex de fractures documentades en les puntes,…deriva en el plantejament de la hipòtesi que una part de les puntes haguessin arribat a l’espai funerari clavades en els cadàvers.".
PALOMO I PÉREZ, Antoni; GIBAJA BAO, Juan Francisco (2003) – Análisis tecnomorfológica/funcional i experimental de las puntes de flexta. In La costa de can Martorell (Dosrius, El Marcéeme). Laietania. Estudis d´arqueologia i d´história. Museu de Mataró. 14, p. 179-214.

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